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Gulf War News Collection from 1991 Plus
Iraqi War, 2003 News Research from U-Md.


Some Collection images are protected by Copyright.  Those under Copyright are presented here as fair use for academic and research purposes only and to promote use of the Collection at the University of Maryland, College Park.
"6 miles from Kuwait border", a frame from ITN Report with Jeremy Thompson

First Gulf War News Transcript:
Independent Television News Report with Jeremy Thompson

First Gulf War News Interview:
Rick Davis, NBC Television News, on Coalition Public Affairs

U-Md. College Park Research Report:
University of Maryland, October 2003 research study, reveals
how well different news source audiences/readers have
"true" and not-so-true perceptions of Iraqi War

NETSLIDES I and II from Gulf War Video Collection:
SlideShows of Gulf War images from Library of American Broadcasting video
and War footage holdings in near-by National Archives II at College Park

Rick Kiernan and Two Rising Washington Post Journalists
Receive University of South Carolina News Awards in Columbia
with Charles Bierbauer Presiding over Ceremonies at the Summit Club

Washington Post  Link:
"New Tools Showed Gulf War on TV"
by Frazier Moore, AP Television Writer of Athens, Georgia,
Sunday, Jan. 14, 2001; 1:14 PM EST
UGA graduate Tom Johnson was Prez of CNN when Moore wrote piece
Moore was 2008-2010 Peabody Awards Board Member with
Harry Jessell, former Editor-in-Chief of
B&C (Broadcasting & Cable) which
co-sponsored the 2011 Peabody Awards

25th Anniversary of Persian Gulf War Approaches

The Gulf War TV News Collection of over 500 videotapes is now a part of the Library of American Broadcasting, University of Maryland, College Park. The Broadcast Pioneers founded the Library in 1972 at the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) in Washington. The Transmitter -- published by the University of Maryland Libraries -- reportedThe Transmitter from U-Md acquisition from the Collection developer in the Fall 2001 issue that also carried an appointment announcement for Library Foundation President Lucille Luongo on the same page. Luongo died at her home in Chappaqua, New York, 11 January, 2006.

The Broadcast Pioneers Library moved in 1994 from the NAB in Washington to College Park, where expansion and development of the Library continues. This War Collection, renamed the Gulf War Video Collection by the Library, occupied new facilities in Hornbake Library building 3 September 2002, the 30th anniversary year of the Library's creation at the NAB. The Diamondback -- independent student newspaper at U-Md. -- reported problems with the news collection's availability and use in the new facilities during November 2002. The student reporter explains that ten years earlier in Huntsville, Alabama, a civilian employee who had been in the War area in 1990-91 presented Foote with the international video collection of original tapes. Most of the tapes had not been edited. [In September 2008 after his retirement from University, Foote identified the donor of tapes as "former University of North Alabama student". Both Doctors Foote/Foot have degrees from UNA.]

The Library of American Broadcasting (LAB) Foundation celebrated the Library's grand opening 18 September 2003 in New York's Grand Hyatt Hotel. President Luongo seated the Collection developer Avon Edward Foote at the Taishoff/West table next to Harry A. Jessell, Editor-in-Chief of Broadcasting and Cable. The vacant chair on the other side of the developer, held for Chuck Howell, Chief Curator of the Library at Maryland, remained empty because DC area airport closures caused by storm Isabel interrupted his plans to attend. And seated across the table was Carroll Virginia West with husband Donald V. West in whose name Broadcasting and Cable had given a substantial photo collection to LAB in 2003. Don West followed Luongo to become President of the Library of American Broadcasting Foundation, co-located with the Library to College Park, Maryland. Read how LAB'S photo collection contributed to historical accuracy of Good Night, and Good Luck, George Clooney's 2005 movie about CBS legendary journalist Edward R. Murrow.

In March 2001, the Collection's developer, preparing the Collection for a permanent national home, taped [msnbc]an interview about the War Coalition's media relations with Rick Kiernan, former head of media relations for the U. S. Army and head of the Joint Information Bureau during the Gulf War. Collection developer Avon Edward Foote interviewed Kiernan, General Norman Schwarzkopf's press assistant during the war, especially for the Collection at the Washington NBC Television primary facility adjacent to the U.S. Capitol. The taping used the Hardball studio where Chris Matthew's programs on MSNBC originate, and where many NBC news segments with Tim Russert were telecast. Meet the Press comes from a different NBC studio.

As Thornwood's Persian Gulf War, 1991, TV News Collection, this site became a significant internet reference source after Ask Jeeves ratings from DIRECT HIT, which claimed it tracked 71 per cent of all web users in a month, ranked CHOTANK among the Top One or Two "Persian Gulf War" web locales for several weeks in Summer 2000. Until October 7, 2001, this was the most popular "Gulf War, 1991" site on the Internet earning a DIRECT HIT ranking of #1 with three "people" stars. Warner Bros, promoting a November 2004 DVD release of Three Kings, created a minor "free press" controversy by refusing to add a recent Gulf War I documentary by the movie's director David O. Russell to the new DVD content and then postponing release to after the presidential election. Russell commented on the studio's delaying DVD release to February 2005, "This is censorship and an infringement of the 1st Amendment based on political opinions."

Celebrating the site's popularity, a second series of original still frames from the collection was added to the popular, first NetSlides war image series from the Collection to acknowledge the 10th anniversary of the Gulf War. You may follow the links above to see both NetSlides series.

Streaming Emblaze 2005 audio concerning the controversy over press coverage of the War revealed tight military handling of war correspondents in some cases. An audio sample in the Collection establishes there was Pentagon policy to limit 1990/91 news coverage of soldiers' religious activities, a charge made by one Middle East, ABC Television journalist. Chris Burry, the correspondent, also reported on the 2003 War in Iraq.

The Davis transcript TV frame of Rick Davis, NBC Television News, in LAB Gulf War Collection. U-Md., College Park will help readers determine how well the Sidle Commission plan for U.S. military public relations worked during the Persian Gulf War. The interview with Rick Davis of NBC Television was recorded in the Persian Gulf military theater. The transcript is taken from the original BetaCam NBC tape by Eddie Foote, LAB Collection developer and university professor.

John Lynch, director of the Television News Archives at Vanderbilt University, has considered the significance of this professional BetaCam tape Collection on the Gulf War. He conceded in Nashville interview with the Collection developer that the Gulf War archive is the major international, unedited collection of Persian Gulf War television coverage available for academic study, and he agrees with Vernon Stone -- Radio Television News Directors' Association researcher and scholar and former Director of Journalism Graduate Studies at University of Georgia -- that the Collection is the largest known, academic video archive on the Gulf War after the Vanderbilt collection. The Vanderbilt archive is the most comprehensive for off-air, news packages containing 2,000 hours of Persian Gulf War footage on 3/4 inch, U-MATIC videotape from ABC, CBS, NBC, and CNN.

Scott Cutlip (1915 to 2000) is probably the best known of the Military Public Affairs advisors over many decades including the years before the Gulf War. He enlisted in the United States Army Air Force in 1942. He advanced to rank of Major, counter-intelligence, in three years and served with the 5th Air Force from Australia through the occupation of Japan. His August 24, 2000, Published in 2014 at Michigan Stateobituary, published in Madison, Wisconsin, states, "He served as an advisor to the United States Army and other Armed Services graduate students, and guided more than 130 of them in their master's theses." When he retired in 1985, he was professor, Henry Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Georgia, Athens, having led the school as Dean from 1976 to 1983. Scott Cutlip authored with Center and Broom Effective Public Relations, the PR "bible" for both students and professionals that was in its 8th edition when he died.

Cutlip's early research published in 1965 detailed the PR history of the American Cancer Society. Emerson Foote -- Foote, Cone and Belding Advertising Agency -- is credited by Cutlip with helping to make branding and fund-raising for the Society a national success in 1940s. Cutlip notes that Emerson's parents -- who rest in the Iuka, Mississippi, Wilmuth Street cemetery -- both suffered cancer which challenged Emerson to assist the misguided organization. The parents' blackened tombstones in Oak Grove Cemetery are located in a large plot with Word family relatives of Emerson. Professor Samuel Francis Howard, respected and honored principal at Iuka High School, married Florence Penn, who is the sister of Emerson's mother, Ruth. In 1927 when Colonel Charles Lindbergh flew over Eastport in Northeast Tishomingo County and the Merrill-Nelson home across the highway from the Iuka school in the Spirit of St. Louis, Billy Brinkley, Lila Frances Broughton, Grace Welch and Seldon Hanks were among the students of Professor and Mrs. Howard looking up to the future. They would wait nearly a decade for Dick Merrill to establish transatlantic flight records for Iuka during historic round-trip Anglo-American Coronation Goodwill flight for William Randolph Hearst. Merrill attempted Hollywood stardom playing himself in Atlantic Flight for Monogram Pictures. After flying the hump in Burma during World War II, Merrill shared additional world flight records with co-pilot, CBS radio and television star Arthur (buy-them-by-the-carton) Godfrey. Eisenhower selected Merrill to be his personal pilot during 1952 Presidential Campaign. Read archived letter from Emerson Foote that may be of interest to Cutlip-U.S. Army public affairs scholars.

The Public Relations Society of America, which helped arrange the 2001 interview with Kiernan, announced 5 January 2004 a new professional interest section. The Military and National Security Section offers membership to military and civilian public affairs personnel of the Department of Defense and the U.S. Armed Forces.

In 1973, about the time he received Emerson's letter, Avon Edward Foote published important document to be later distributed by the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare.
Click for: Educational Radio: The Fifty-Year Old Adolescent

The Gulf War TV News Collection's developer is editor of CBS and Congress: "The Selling of the Pentagon" Papers, a special issue of the Educational Broadcasting Review (EBR). He edited the journal number while a faculty member at the University of Mississippi, Oxford. And, the Ohio State University, Columbus, in cooperation with the National Association of Educational Broadcasters in Washington published the special issue. Foote sought clarification of the matters of Freedom of the Press raised by the 1971 attempt to cite CBS President Frank Stanton, who withheld outtakes (footage shot but not used in final edit) from a Congressional Committee, for contempt of Congress. The Committee was looking into the CBS program about Pentagon public relations activities. Stanton is an Ohio State graduate inducted into the "First Fifty Giants of Broadcasting" during the 2003 Grand Opening of the Library of American Broadcasting, and Don West, Library Foundation President, was Stanton's assistant at CBS for four years until 1969. The National Public Broadcasting Archives, also at University of Maryland, has a copy of the special issue in the collected papers of Bill Reed, retired PBS Senior Vice-President. The National Archives II is at College Park, a short bus ride from the Footes' Collection. The Archives makes this statement in a 1990 brochure: "The outtakes or unaired footage may contain more valuable information than the edited footage put on the air." Roger Mudd, anchor for "The Selling of the Pentagon" in 1971, was a guest journalist/author in March 2008, on "Q & A" with Brian Lamb for C-Span. The program where Mudd discusses "The Selling of the Pentagon" production and controversy is provided by C-Span from its web Video Archive at Purdue University.

The National Public Broadcasting Archives in the new Centre for Broadcasting Archives at the University of Maryland include EBR as reference shelf materials for the NPBA subject collections on "Public Radio", "Public Television", "NPR", "Allerton House Conferences" (added in 2002) and the "Carnegie Commission on Educational Television".

The Collection's developer is editor of EBR issues in the NBPA Collection; a former assistant to Professor Stone in Georgia's graduate journalism program; and both a member and sometimes chairman of Peabody Radio/TV Awards faculty screening committees at the UGA in the 70s. The developer's screening committee recommended a Peabody Award to Jim Laurie for NBC News radio reports on the fall of Saigon in 1975. Laurie's Peabody Award citation reads: "For more than nineteen hours, Laurie and his colleagues provided a series of twenty special reports on the disintegration of Saigon. Then Laurie elected to remain behind to provide Americans with additional reports after the last Marine was lifted off the roof of the U.S. Embassy." Remembering comments of Grady College Dean Emeritus John Drewry, who had assisted WSB's Lambdin Kay in founding the Peabody Awards, Foote told his students at the University of North Alabama in March 2005 that "Drewry seemed more pleased with a Peabody for Laurie" than any of the other Peabody recommendations that Foote discussed with him. Foote and Drewry shared an office suite and secretary with Professors Becky Quarles and Vernon Stone at the time. The Broadcast Pioneers, who started the Library of American Broadcasting at the NAB, co-sponsored for many years the Peabody Awards Dinner in New York, that established the Peabody as one of the earliest, most-valued radio awards and later television awards at major production organizations and the national networks.

Vector Theory of Perception & Persuasion****

The Collection developer is also author of "A Model of Communication Effectiveness", originally published in the Journal of Communication about the time of the Stanton controversy. The American Psychological Association abstracted the article for its literature database (PsycINFO_1887) in 2000, and the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC), Dublin, Ohio, distributed the abstract. OCLC
Click on NETSLIDES link near top of this page for LAB Collection frame captures from videotapes at U-Md.

Norman Schwarzkopf

reported in 2004 that 1400 libraries worldwide had copies of the complete article. The Foote model takes its inspiration from the work of Claude Shannon (1917 -- 2001), whose mathematics of information theory is still clarifying the limits of encoding/decoding. The American Institutes for Research, Washington, D. C., later selected the Foote model when compiling the U. S. Army's psyop practice book for the Vietnam era. Psyop Casebook became the working title during permissions clearances and editing approvals gathered in 1972. Sarah A. Skillings, on behalf of Ronald D. McLaurin, signed the permission request sent to Eddie Foote at Ohio State, and the United States Army Publishing Agency published the 1173 page collection four years later. The two book set is: Daniel C. Pollock, Project Director, The Art and Science of Psychological Operations: Case Studies of Military Application. In two volumes (DA PAM 525-7-1; 525-7-2). Editors: Ronald D. McLaurin, Carl F. Rosenthal, Sarah A. Skillings, and others. (Washington: Headquarters, Department of the Army, April 1976). Logo of Psychological
Operations, US ArmyClick to search OCLC for libraries with copies of both volumes in US and overseas. Dr. Foote's vector model is on pages 636 to 642 of Volume Two.  [Major internet search engines, such as MSN-Bing, Google, and Yahoo, may use vector space theory techniques in writing programming functions to provide web search rankings.]  Zbigniew Brzezinski, who became advisor to the National Security Council in the Carter administration, has an article "Propaganda and the Monopoly of Mass Communications" on pages 1028 to 1042. Vernon Stone's article is pages 796 to 805.

  The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) distributes a pre-publication abstract for the two volumes that the Center reports are in over 270 libraries world-wide including the "Army Intelligence Center, FT Huachuca, AZ 85613 United States" and "Combined Arms Research Library, Fort Leavenworth, FT Leavenworth, KS 66027 United States":

This publication has been produced as a part of the overall research program undertaken by the Department of the Army to improve the capability of the United States Army to conduct PSYOP/information programs under a variety of circumstances in many different environments. The major focus of attention has been placed on psychological operations of military relevance, with special emphasis on the types of activities that may confront U.S. personnel in the two decades ahead. In content, the editors have sought to cover the whole range of U.S. public international communications whether they be described as international information, cultural affairs, or psychological operations, and whether or not they be conducted by members of a military service or personnel of a civilian agency. The editors also have touched upon the ways in which PSYOP is employed elsewhere, with the hope that such material will serve to broaden the American understanding of how others around the world attempt to communicate effectively across cultural barriers and international borders. The science of communication theory is relatively new; more than half of all the research, most of the important books and articles in the field, and most of the great figures in the study of communications have become well known only in the last twenty years. Moreover, increasingly for the last decade and a half it is in the context of communication theory that psychological operations-PSYOP-has been studied. Therefore, these volumes will include several timely essays on communication theory.

The Combined Arms Research Library (CARL) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, published online in 2009 the volumes with Foote's article. To access effectiveness model via the web in computer file format: (1) Search OCLC for the U.S. Army publication that is fully described above. (2) Click OCLC link to the free computer-file, Digital Library copy at Fort Leavenworth.

Blackwell Synergy published Foote's model online in 2006. The Oxford, England Company had offices in the US, UK, Australia, WETA promoted it's
PBS airing of The
Road to 9/11 in
September 2005 China, Denmark, Germany and Japan and was the world's leading learned society publisher before acquisition by a competing knowledge company.

Channel 4, London, recommends this Gulf War Collection page to viewers looking for the history behind "The Road to 9/11: A Chronology". DVDs of the program are available on the PBS website but the US co-production has been retitled, "The Road to 9/11: A Brief History of Conflict in the Middle East".  WETA, Washington, in announcing the national telecast and its own role in the PBS production, states in 2005 press release: [The program] looks at the deep historical roots of Al-Qaeda, and the theological and political background of bin Laden and his goals. The result is an engrossing, fast-paced history lesson that looks forward as well as back, lending perspective to today's events and policy choices.

Since this CHOTANK site started in 1995 under the auspices of the BBC Networking Club on the Pipex WorldServer, Cambridge, England, please note that an old American -- BBC partnership site from the same era, still maintained by PBS, provides ready-now, similar pages, including interviews with Margaret Thatcher, Colin Powell, Norman Schwarzkopf and others. Click FRONTLINE.

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  Access has expired to get Gulf War Broadband Stream.  But, LAB Collection offers PBS FRONTLINE sign-up for updates -- Click.

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**** These "GULF WAR NEWS" pages have ranked first of up to
20,000,000 sites at GOOGLE and YAHOO.
MSN has ranked in the top two positions for the same search.
Over 100 search partners (such as LA Times, Washington Post, AOL, BBC)
joined most days with the major three engines during 1 September 2002 until 4 July 2011 in putting at tops in relevancy for Gulf War News, War TV News, and/or Gulf War Television. To get GOOGLE frame grab of Chotank at first of 133 million for "War TV News" scroll down
on link after clicking here.
YAHOO dropped its own GOOGLE partnership in early 2004,
while MSN introduced its own independent search format in early 2005.

Copyright (c) 2012-2014

Avon Edward Foote and


Persian Gulf War TV News Collection supported with equipment loans by
SONY Electronics, Inc., Business and Professional Products Group, Atlanta, 1994 and 1998.
To see Gulf War News site during Sony support activity -- CLICK .

2002 promotional assistance provided by TV 48, WAFF Television.

First equipment and personnel assistance shared in 1993 by WHNT, Channel 19.
The New York Times station for North Alabama during this period, WHNT also transferred to
Dr. Foote its Huntsville newsfilm archives in 1994 to be available at the University of
North Alabama for research and instructional distribution. A small WOWL Television newsfilm
collection remains with Dr. Foote since his UNA retirement.

Additional 2001 assistance by WHDF, Channel 15, and WAAY-TV, Channel 31.
All stations are in Huntsville-Decatur-Florence ADI as historically defined by Arbitron Ratings.

Google "all" searches for War TV News returns 430,000,000 word, picture, and graphic results. While does not make the top text-sites results, does crash the Top Four images list when
searching the image/picture universe.

Persian Gulf War TV News Collection is a former faculty research archive at the University of North Alabama.
From 1992 to 2001, the Collection was the faculty research property of Avon Edward Foote, Associate Professor.
Among family and friends, he is known as "Eddie" (born Burnsville, Mississippi, 24 September 1937).
The Collection opened at the Broadcast Pioneers' Library of American Broadcasting with new facilities in
Hornbake Library, University of Maryland, College Park in 2002. Before coming to College Park,
the Broadcast Pioneers housed their famous Library at National Association of Broadcasters offices in Washington.

The Transmitter -- published by the University of Maryland -- announced acquisition from Dr. Avon Edward Foote of UNA
and Dr. Dorothy Gargis Foote of UA-Huntsville in Fall, 2001 issue. Six months before 2005 Awards in New York under
Lucille Luongo, the Footes wrote letters in a failed attempt to get the U-Md College Park Library to honor Frank Kyle Spain
of Tupelo with a Foundation award. To see BLOG09 article about Spain with expanded Foote/Foot Notes -- CLICK.

Read Lucille Luongo's comments that are linked in first paragraph. She tells of teaching English for 10 years before joining
Katz Media. She also mentions two tobacco products: Pall Mall cigs, associated with Emerson Foote, born Sheffield, Alabama, and
Chesterfield cigs, promoted in ads by Arthur Godfrey, friend of Iuka's Dick Merrill. Luongo praises Parks Johnson, born Sheffield,
Alabama, and his national "Vox Pop" radio show from 30's and 40's. Her presentation to the Pioneers is very enlighting.
Luongo, Katz Media's head of Advertising/Market Promotion in New York, was management supervisor of Sammy Darwin of Iuka,
when he gained national fame as Program Director of WZZK, Katz Broadcasting, country radio for Birmingham.


Reviewed  .  Revised  .  Refreshed  16 February 2016
25th Anniversary of Persian Gulf War Approaches